在台灣劃設中華白海豚海洋保護區的爭議:利益關係人之觀感分析探討

外文標題: 
Exploring Stakeholders’ Views of Designating the Marine Protected Area for Conservation of Sousa Chinensis in Taiwan
校院系所: 
國立成功大學 海洋科技與事務研究所
指導教授: 
劉大綱
出版年份: 
2010年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

東台灣海峽種群的中華白海豚為台灣西部沿岸地區經常出沒的海洋哺乳類,在 2007 年之數量僅剩下 99 隻,目前已被世界自然保育組織 (International Union for Conservation of Nature) 所編列的瀕危物種紅色名錄分類為瀕臨絕種物種,因此在台灣有需要對其進行立即地保育措施以避免台灣地區的中華白海豚絕種。近年來環境保育政策由目標物種的保育,逐漸發展為棲地保育的觀念,但中華白海豚於台灣西部地區主要活動範圍跨越六縣市之海域,當中又與工業開發工程及漁業作業區域有大量重疊,且中華白海豚喜好活動於近岸海域中,因此若使用棲地保育的概念劃設海洋保護區,將影響到當地利益關係人對於原有資源使用的方式,產生許多利益衝突的爭議。 本研究主要使用質性研究的方法,採用半結構式深入訪談之模式,將軸心問題標準化後作為訪談過程中的大綱,並循此架構在訪談中以劃設中華白海豚海洋保護區為主要焦點,引導受訪之利益關係人能夠暢談對於此議題之觀點看法與感受。研究所選擇的訪談對象依照利益關係人之屬性分類,包含有當地的漁業產業、工業產業、政府部門、學術單位、以及環境保護團體。藉由探討不同層面的利益關係人對於劃設中華白海豚海洋保護區之觀點與感受,以釐清利益關係人之間可能產生衝突的原因。 研究結果發現中華白海豚海洋保護區劃設主要的爭議在於對中華白海豚的基本調查與統計數據不足,此亦為大部分受訪者反對劃設中華白海豚海洋保護區的主要原因,觀點在於無法從現有的資料中訂出最適合的保護區位置與範圍,以及經濟與工業開發對於中華白海豚族群數量變化之間仍未有明確關聯性,無法對其作出相對應的減緩措施。漁業方面,反對的原因在於漁民預期海洋保護區的劃設範圍與其原先作業區域重疊性高,且漁民與中華白海豚之間為互相競爭漁業資源之關係,後續漁業補償的經濟問題將可能非常龐大。本研究結果提供利益關係人間衝突之主要癥結,希望能在未來若要劃設中華白海豚海洋保護區時,能使衝突降到最小。

外文摘要: 

Sousa chinensis is one of marine mammals that can be frequently sighted in the coastal waters of western Taiwan. The abundance of this eastern Taiwan Strait subpopulation (EST) was estimated to be 99 individuals in 2007. This species is categorized as critically endangered (CR) in the IUCN Red list of threatened species, thus immediate measures of protection should be taken to prevent them from extinction in Taiwan. In recent years, the policy of environmental conservation has been shifted to habitat conservation instead of the previous species conservation. Because the living area of Sousa chinensis covers the coastal waters of six countries, where it also overlaps with fishing grounds and proposed reclamation zones for industrial park, the designation of this area as marine protected area (MPA) for conservation will affect the original marine use and presents a major conflict among multiple stakeholders. This study is a qualitative research that employs semi-structured interviews with stakeholders from competing interests, including local fishery, industry, government, academia, and the conservation. Through conferring different levels of stakeholders about their feeling, views, perceptions, and response regarding the designation of MPA for conservation of Sousa chinensis, the reasons of the conflicts among stakeholders were explored and analyzed. Results showed the main reason for the debate is that the basic information and statistic data for Sousa chinensis is not enough. It becomes a rationale of opposing the establishment of MPA since an appropriate site and size of the MPA cannot be decided based on the current uncertain information. The relation between coastal development and the size of Sousa chinensis population is still uncertain, thus it is difficult to implement the mitigation measures correspondingly. In the aspects of fishery, the reason to oppose is that the MPA may potentially overlap with the existing fishing ground. Sousa chinensis also compete the same resources with fishermen, and compensation for the loss of fishery will cost a lot. Results from this research will help to inform the design of the marine protected area for conservation of Sousa chinensis in Taiwan and to minimize the conflicts between different stakeholders.