桃園埤塘景觀特性與水鳥族群關係之研究

外文標題: 
A Study of the Relationship between The Landscape Characteristic of Tao-yen Pond and Water Bird
校院系所: 
中國文化大學 景觀學系碩士班
指導教授: 
張琪如
出版年份: 
2006年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

近年來,由於人口成長與都市的開發,造成沿海濕地與農業水田的破壞,導致大量的候鳥與留鳥族群面臨喪失的危機,而桃園縣大多數濕地都沿著海岸線分佈,因此也受到衝擊。因此想藉由單純保護海岸濕地方法,可能已不足以供應大量的水鳥族群所需的棲息空間,同時在文獻上發現,桃園境內埤塘環境有少數部分候鳥族群在此進行覓食與休憩。因此希望藉由桃園境內埤塘的人為環境,針對其埤塘本身與週邊環境,強化自然生態之方式,也許能彌補海岸濕地數量之不足。 本研究運用景觀生態學的概念,針對埤塘環境區分為大小兩種尺度,其中包含了埤塘本身結構與植栽數量及埤塘外圍環境12種土地覆蓋的面積百分比。同時進行水鳥調查資料之收集,調查桃園縣中七個鄉鎮市,抽取49個埤塘,為期1年的調查時間,每個埤塘分別紀錄5次,共紀錄245份鳥類調查表。水鳥資料的分析運用雙向列表分析與降趨對應分析進行水鳥分群討論,並且利用不同季節與科種之水鳥密度與埤塘之間進行迴歸分析與樹狀分析,探討水鳥族群與桃園埤塘與週邊環境之相關性。 整體分析發現季節變化、埤塘放水曝氣、週邊水田農作週期會影響水鳥密度高低,桃園大致上在冬季(11-2月)期間,在埤塘內部可以看到成群大型的鷺科候鳥與鴨科候鳥來台渡冬,在夏(8月)、秋(9-10月)期間,在埤塘週邊水田、蓮花田或是灘地容易觀察到一小群鷸鴴科的蹤跡。在春季(4-5 月),則是冬候鳥離台的時間,除此之外可觀察到少數區域性遷移的大型鷸科鳥種(例如:黑尾鷸)與小燕鷗(保育類鳥類),在放水曝氣期間,埤塘底部灘地提供了原本在埤塘外圍環境休憩的鷸鴴科與鶺鴒科水鳥的另一種棲地環境。經由迴歸式與樹狀分析發現鴨科與保育類的水鳥對於環境敏感度比一般性水鳥高,影響因子包含有內外側的植栽密度、包覆程度,甚至連外在環境變化,如水田的多寡、樹林面積的百分比都考慮其中。而鷸鴴科水鳥較重視外部環境之組成,如埤塘離海岸線之距離和水田灘地面積佔總面積比率。因此不同分群之水鳥受影響之因子可以提供在未來都市與農村環境中埤塘規劃之參考依據。

外文摘要: 

The population growth and expansion of urban areas has caused the destruction of critical coastal wetlands, threatening the survival of water birds in Tao-Yuan County. Because such wetlands are already scarce, it is estimated that simply protecting the wetland may not be sufficient to supply adequate habitat for large numbers of migrating birds. It has been noted in the literature that some water birds will stay in agricultural ponds. In this research, I hope to enhance the ecological benefits of such agricultural ponds and their surroundings, in hopes that these ponds may act as a surrogate for lost costal wetlands. In this study, I applied landscape ecology concepts to help protect the water birds of Tao-Yuan agricultural ponds. The research was conducted at two scales: pond scale and pond periphery scale. Pond scale analysis includes the amount of plants on the pond edge and pond structure; pond periphery scale refers to land cover within 200 meter from the ponds. A total of 49 ponds were sampled. The survey spanned one year, with five survey periods spread evenly across the year. Bird data were analyzed using TWINSPAN and DCA, and the relation of pond use pattern and water bird were analyzed using stepwise regression and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Patterns of pond changes were compared with water bird survey data in 2005 as a confirmation of landscape ecological design principles. The results suggest that the seasons, aeration of ponds, and the agricultural activities in the surrounding paddy fields influence the density of water birds. During winter (November - February), many migrant birds including egrets and ducks appear in the ponds, whereas during summer (August) and autumn (September - October), small groups of shore bird can be easily found in the paddy fields around the ponds. In spring time (April-May), winter birds depart from Taiwan, but a few regional migrating birds such as large birds of the family Scolopacidae (e.g. Black-tailed Godwit) and Sterna albifrons can be observed. During pond aeration, the exposed pond bottoms provide shallow-water mud habitats for shore birds. The results of our regression and CART analyses suggest that birds of the family Anatidae and protected birds are more sensitive to their environments, including factors such as plant density, the degree of shelter, and surrounding environments. Shore birds of the families Charadriidae and Scolopacidae are more sensitive to the surrounding environments outside the ponds, such as the percentage of paddy fields or the distance of the pond to the west coastline. The factors that water birds respond to can then be used as a reference basis for the planning and design of ponds in agricultural landscapes.