福山試驗林麝香貓 (Viverricula indica) 之腸道寄生蟲

外文標題: 
Intestinal Parasites of small Chinese civet (Viverricula indica) in the Fushan Experimental Forest
校院系所: 
屏東科技大學 野生動物保育研究所
指導教授: 
蘇秀慧
董光中
出版年份: 
2009年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

本研究自2006年8月至2007年10月,於福山試驗林中,每個月三天,進行當日新鮮麝香貓排遺收集,以進行野外麝香貓排遺的腸道寄生蟲分析。本研究目的在於(1)了解台灣野生麝香貓腸道寄生蟲相,以提供日後野生動物寄生蟲調查的方法及基本資料,(2)探討麝香貓寄生蟲感染狀況在研究期間的變化,以及在不同程度的人為活動干擾區域之差異,與(3)比較在麝香貓排遺中摺疊葉片出現情形與寄生蟲卵排出量的相關性,藉此討論麝香貓吞食摺疊葉片行為是否有自我醫療作用的可能。收集個別排遺時,觀察並記錄肉眼可辨識之內容物、採集地點狀況與GPS定位,並以SAF浸泡保存新鮮排遺以固定、保存排遺中的寄生蟲卵。研究期間共收集了444個麝香貓排遺樣本,共計發現了16種腸道寄生蟲,在線蟲門有八種蟲卵、一種幼蟲以及一種蟲體,包括毛細線蟲(Capillaria sp.)卵、蛔蟲(Toxocara paradoxura)卵與蟲體、鉤蟲(Ancylostoma sp.)卵、食道蟲( Siprocerca sp.)卵、胃蟲( Tetrameres sp.)卵、鞭蟲(Trichuris sp.)卵、蟯蟲1(Enterobius sp.)卵、蟯蟲2(Passalurus sp.)蟲卵以及糞桿線蟲(Strongyloides sp.)卵與仔蟲,扁型動物門有兩種蟲卵包括肺吸蟲( Paragonimus sp. )蟲卵以及有線絛蟲(Mesocestoides litteratus)卵與蟲體,原生動物有Monocystis sp.蟲卵、Isospora spp.卵囊(包括Isospora felis、Isopora reiota )、隱孢子蟲(Cryptosporidium sp.)卵囊、環孢子蟲(Cyclospora sp.)卵囊。其中有線絛蟲( Mesoestoides lineatus)及蛔蟲(Toxocara paradoxura)均為台灣新紀錄種。Monocystis spp.、毛細線蟲、蛔蟲、鉤蟲、糞桿線蟲仔蟲、鞭蟲為本次實驗的排遺蟲卵分析中主要感染的線蟲種類。整體上,寄生蟲感染情形無明顯的季節性變化,毛細線蟲和糞桿線蟲平時均有穩定的陽性率存在,鞭蟲感染以三個月一個高峰,Monocystis spp.的出現約半年一次週期,感染狀況的月變化會依照不同的寄生蟲蟲種而有不一樣的情形。月均溫和月累積雨量與寄生蟲陽性率上無顯著相關,僅均溫與毛細線蟲及鞭蟲的及平均蟲卵排出量有顯著負相關。摺疊葉片與蛔蟲蟲體排出沒有顯著相關性,但在每月摺疊葉片的出現比例與蛔蟲感染強度間有顯著正相關,顯示蛔蟲在麝香貓宿主體內族群量是促進麝香貓吞食葉片的可能原因之一。野生動物腸道寄生蟲感染為很普遍的現象,在迴歸分析中亦顯示當地寄生蟲在麝香貓體內呈現集中在部份宿主中而非均勻分佈並且在宿主體內感染數量皆呈現受限狀態,表示該寄生蟲在宿主體內的數量受某種機制影響不致過量造成宿主死亡以達在當地共存的狀態。寄生蟲相可以當作一地的環境生物指標,然而國內野生動物寄生蟲研究仍屬匱乏,若能進一步建立寄生蟲生物資料庫必定對於野生動物與生態環境的經營管理上有一番助益。

外文摘要: 

In this study fresh feces of small Chinese civets (Viverricula indica) were collected monthly at the Fushan Experimental Forest from August 2006 to October 2007. I investigated the intestinal parasite fauna of small Chinese civet in the wild and the temporal variation in the prevalence and mean intensity of the parasites. I also examined whether the undigested leaf contained in the feces was associated with self-medication. A total of 16 intestinal parasites taxas were found in the fecal samples including 9 nematode (Capillaria sp., Toxocara paradoxura, Ancylostoma sp., Siprocerca sp., Tetrameres sp., Trichuris sp., Enterobius sp., Passalurus sp., and Strongyloides sp.), 2 platyhelminth (Paragonimus sp. and Mesocestoides lineatus), and 5 protoza (Monocystis spp., Isospora spp., Cryptosporidium sp., and Cyclospora sp.). Segments of Mesoestoides lineatus and worms of Toxocara paradoxura were found in the feces and they were new records for Taiwan. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 84.0%, and different taxa varied in the prevalence in the fecal samples examined. The six most common intestinal parasites recovered were Monocystis sp., Capillaria sp., Toxocara paradoxura, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris sp., and Strongyloies sp.. There was no consistent temporal variation in the prevalence of the six parasite taxa. The prevalence of Capillaria sp. and Strongyloides sp. were high and steady throughout the study period. However, infection by Trichuris sp. infection occurred every other three months and Monocystis were prevalent in half of a year. The prevalence of the six taxa was not associated with the monthly average temperature and rainfall. The mean abundance of Capillaria sp. and Trichuris sp. revearled from the feces was negatively correlated to the monthly average temperature. The proportion of feces with undigested leaves in each month was positively correlated to the mean intensity of Toxocara paradoxura recovered. Studies on parasites and parasitism in wildlife can provide useful information for wildlife management.