正加強訓練在圈養靈長類行為管理之應用

外文標題: 
Applications of Positive Reinforcement Training in Behavior Management of Captive Non-human Primates
校院系所: 
屏東科技大學 野生動物保育研究所
指導教授: 
蘇秀慧
出版年份: 
2009年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

正加強訓練(Positive Reinforcement Training / Technology, PRT)利用操作制約的學習原理,用獎勵的方式來增加要求行為的發生率,是訓練動物、塑造動物行為的一種方法。透過訓練可減少動物的緊迫反應與異常行為的發生,所以在圈養下進行正加強訓練,也可達到行為豐富化,對圈養動物做有效的行為管理,在國外已被動物圈養機構廣泛地使用,但在臺灣卻非常少見。本研究藉由訓練臺灣獼猴與紅毛猩猩 接受生理食鹽水注射的過程,探討PRT應用於此二種非人靈長類動物的訓練流程與訓練成效。全部接受訓練的個體皆達成接受生理食鹽水注射的行為訓練目標,且訓練二種動物需要的總時間相當。此結果顯示台灣獼猴與紅毛猩猩皆能接受PRT的訓練,也確定了本研究中所使用的訓練方法與行為塑型步驟之可行性。而臺灣獼猴與紅毛猩猩的學習速度相當,也說明了臺灣獼猴的認知學習能力並不比紅毛猩猩遜色。以正加強訓練塑造台灣獼猴與紅毛猩猩接受生理食鹽水注射之行為所需的總訓練時間約450分鐘,由此可知,只要使用正確的訓練技巧,對圈養的動物進行行為管理,以提升其動物福祉是可行的,值得在全國各動物圈養機構廣泛推廣。

外文摘要: 

Positive reinforcement training / technology(PRT)applies the principles of condition learning to train animals. Animal are rewarded for displaying requested behaviors. PRT is a good way of shaping animals’ behavior, by doing which animals are less stressful and show lower frequencies of abnormal behavior in captivity. Thus, application of PRT on captive animals is not only considered behavior enrichment but also an effective approach of conducting behavior management. PRT is commonly used by captive animal organizations overseas, but not in Taiwan. In this study I used PRT to train Taiwanese macaques and orangutans to take shots, in order to evaluate effects of the application of PRT on behavior- shaping upon these two non-human primate species. All subjects were successfully trained to display behaviors they are commended. There was no significant difference in time length required to train this two primate species. This result showed that the Taiwanese macaque and orangutan can be trained by PRT, and confirmed the feasibility of PRT skills used in this studying shaping behaviors. The results also suggested that the cognition ability of Taiwanese macaque is not different from that of orangutans, in terms of the learning ability shown in this study. Training both Taiwanese macaques and orangutans to take injections by applying PRT took about 450 minutes in total. Therefore, it is workable to manage captive animals’ behavior to improve their welfare by using the correct PRT skills. PRT is useful and helpful to captive animal which is worthy to promote it in all captive animal organizations in Taiwan.