校園生物棲地環境指標建構之研究

外文標題: 
The research of building environmental indicators in the campus with biotope
校院系所: 
臺中師範學院 環境教育研究所
指導教授: 
劉惠元
出版年份: 
2005年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

落實生態保育的最佳途徑是從教育著手,實施環境教育最有效的方法就是在自然中學習的戶外教育,校園戶外的自然生態環境可以成為多樣化的教學資源,學生更可獲得最直接的幫助,從生活的週遭印證所學。 在擁有生物棲地(Biotope)的校園中進行教學,由於生物都是自然存活於校園之中,學生們自然能在環境中潛移默化,擁有對生物生存的正確知識。更可讓學生們了解生命平等,獲得生命教育。若能改造校園成為生物棲地,增進校園內的生物多樣性,則不僅可以提供生態教育所需的教材,更兼顧了校園綠美化,並將成為永續台灣的基礎。 本研究根據文獻探討、訪談以及國小現地踏勘,發現符合生物多樣性及環境教育所需的校園環境應能符合(1)營造多樣化的棲地環境(2)種植本土多樣性的生物食草與蜜源植物(3)採行低頻度的管理措施(4)推行環境教育,培養愛護生物、尊重生命的孩子。並邀請十二位專家針對永續綠校園生物棲地(Biotope)之棲地環境指標進行專家德懷術,建構完成的指標包含永續綠校園政策與實施、荒野觀察區、草地、花圃、喬灌木樹叢、水域(包含水池與溪流)等六面向共計60個指標。整體而言,本指標希望學校能在校園中以適當比例面積規劃各類棲地,並能種植多樣化的生物食草,以及種植多樣化本土的誘鳥、誘蝶植物,校園更應進行低頻度的管理措施(減少除草次數、落葉適度清掃、盡量不使用農藥),將校園的環境營造好了,把校園圍牆改造為低矮的多孔隙綠籬圍牆,自然能夠吸引生物前來。校園內的水域環境,應注意水的循環,種植多樣化適量的沈水、浮葉與挺水植物,並擺設成多孔隙的環境,以利水生生物生存。且學校應指派專人紀錄與維護校園內的生物資源,教師們並能利用校園內的生物資源進行環境教育,教導孩子愛護各種生物,共同維護校園環境,避免給校園內的生物過多的騷擾,依循上述作法,相信必能將校園經營成為進行環境教育的最佳園地,也就是優良的生物棲地。

外文摘要: 

The best way to carry out ecological conservation is education; and the best method to implement environmental education is the outdoor education that learns from nature. The natural ecological environment of the campus could be the diversified teaching resources, and students could get the most direct assistance to verify what they have learned from their living environment. Teaching in the campus with biotope, students could be changed and influenced unobtrusively and imperceptibly in the environment naturally because creatures are existed in campus naturally, and they could have correct knowledge on them. Furthermore, they could understand the equality of life and learn life education. If the campus could be rebuilt as biotope and increased biodiversity, which not only provides teaching material required by ecological education, but also greens and beautifies the campus, and become the foundation of sustainable Taiwan. Through literature discussion, field investigation of the elementary schools, it is discovered that the environment of the campus conforming to biodiversity and environmental education should comply with (1) Creating diversified biotope environment (2) Rooting diversified local plants as host plants for creatures and plants of nectar source (3) Adopting low frequent management measure (4) Promoting environmental education, cultivating children that love creatures and respect life. Furthermore, 12 experts were invited to carry out Delphi technique on the environmental indicators in the campus with biotope. The established indicators include six aspects with total 60 indicators, namely, policy of sustainable green campus and execution, wild observation area, grasslands, flower bed, arbor bushes, and water area (including pool and stream). As a whole, this index expects school to plan various biotopes with appropriate area proportion in campus, and root various host plants for creatures, and root diversified local plants to attract birds and butterflies; moreover, the campus shall carry out low frequent management measure (reduce weeding frequency, clean fallen leaves appropriately, and try not to use pesticides). After the environment in the campus is created, and the wall of the campus is rebuilt as the green fence with multiple holes, it will certainly attract creatures to it. The water area in the campus shall have good water circulation, diversified submersed、floating-leaved and emergent benthophytes , and positioned as an environment with multiple holes to facilitate the existence of hydrobiology. Furthermore, the school should assigned staff to record and maintain the bio-resources in the campus. Teachers could use them to carry out environmental education, teach students to love and protect all creatures, and maintain campus environment jointly to prevent from over disturbance on them. It is believed that the campus could be operated as the best place for environmental education, which is the best biotope, according to the practices described above.