墾丁國家公園內社頂地區自由活動犬隻對台灣梅花鹿(Cervusnippontaiouanus)的潛在衝擊

外文標題: 
The potential impact of free-ranging dog to the Formosan Sika Deer(Cervus nippon taiouanus)in She-ding area in Kenting National Park.
校院系所: 
屏東科技大學野生動物保育研究所
指導教授: 
裴家騏
出版年份: 
2003年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

對於自由活動犬隻與鹿隻的關係,前人研究多所著墨,但卻沒有一致性的結論,犬隻對鹿的影響因各研究地點的環境而有差異。目前犬隻攻擊社頂梅花鹿的事件雖時有所聞,但一直未有科學性的報告。本研究於2002年1月到2003年6月間,在墾丁社頂地區分別進行與犬隻相關梅花鹿死亡事件紀錄、自動相機與樣線資料收集,以了解當地犬隻出現在野外環境的機率,與對梅花鹿的威脅。並以VORTEX軟體評估目前犬隻的獵捕對梅花鹿族群的影響。
研究期間總計進行了34樣線-次的巡視,共37小時,目擊7隻次的犬隻出現在野外環境中;同時,31台相機總計進行了62745.1個小時的工作,共獲得32隻次自由活動犬隻的出現紀錄。結果顯示,研究期間1.5年的紀錄中,共有犬隻相關的梅花鹿死亡39隻次,且野外活動的犬隻多半與人息息相關,出現的時間相近,常活動的地點也相近,社頂地區應沒有懼怕人類對人類有敵意的野化犬存在。所以,要解除社頂地區犬隻對梅花鹿的威脅主要還是要管理社頂聚落活動的犬隻。尤其根據Vortex的模擬,2003年1-6月犬隻相關的梅花鹿死亡(30頭)已經很有機會妨礙梅花鹿的族群增長,這對於社頂梅花鹿復育族群的存續是相當不利的,所以,應該加強宣導盡速約束與人相關自由活動犬隻的行為才是治本之道。此外,本研究也發現復育區中的圍籬,現已多處毀損,既無法將犬隻阻擋在外,亦復增加梅花鹿遭遇犬隻時逃脫的障礙,反增加梅花鹿對犬隻獵捕的脆弱性,應盡速修繕。

外文摘要: 

There were many studies on the relationship between free-ranging dogs and deers; however, the impact differs from place to place. The present study was conducted from January 2002 to June 2003 as an effort to understand the significance of the free-ranging dogs on the sika deer population in She-ding area, Kenting National Park. The incidences of the dog-related death of the sika deer were recorded during the study period, and auto-camera and transect line survey were used to record the activity of the dog. Finally, VORTEX simulation was conducted to evaluate the possible impact of dogs’ predation on the sika deer population.
A total of 37 hours was completed for survey on the 11 transect lines and only 7 dogs were recorded. For the auto-trigger cameras, 62745.1 hours were completed by the 31 cameras and 32 pictures of dogs were recorded. At the same time, a total of 39 dog-related deer deaths was recorded during the study period. Results showed that free-ranging dogs occurred in the She-ding area were mostly house dogs. They occurred in the field at the same time and area as local residents did. No feral dog was appearing in She-ding area. Moreover, based on the VORTEX simulation, the present predation level of sika deer by free-ranging house dogs will slow the population growth of the sika deer, which can be serious for a re-established small population. Therefore, a better management of the local house dog will largely eliminate their threat to the sika deer population. It was also found that the fence of protective area for the sika deer not only can not prevent the invasion by the dogs, but will also block the way of the deer when they were trying to escape from the chasing dogs. An improvement of the fence is necessary.