墾丁國家公園臺灣梅花鹿(Cervus nippon taiouanus)之磨樹痕跡調查

外文標題: 
A field Survey of rubbing by Formosan Sika Deer (Cervus nippon taiouanus) in Kenting National Park
校院系所: 
國立臺北教育大學自然科學教育學系碩士班
指導教授: 
陳順其
出版年份: 
2010年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

臺灣梅花鹿因於1969年在野外絕跡,故墾丁國家公園於1984年進行臺灣梅花鹿復育,自1994至1997年陸續野放後,鹿群已逐漸擴大至社頂周邊地區。由於雄鹿磨樹行為會傷害樹木,為了解野放後鹿群於活動範圍的磨樹現況、磨樹行為是否對當地植物造成明顯的影響?因此自2009年3月至2010年1月進行臺灣梅花鹿磨樹痕跡之調查。調查結果顯示穿越線中以森林遊樂第三區(69棵)的磨痕較多,大圓山牧場(3棵)及帆船石(1棵)較少,龍仔埔等5處牧草區無磨痕。被磨樹種有35科71種共518棵樹被磨,其中有18種41棵(7.9%)重複被磨。被磨數量較多的前十種依序為銀合歡、紅柴、木麻黃、血桐、土密樹、止宮樹、竹子、蟲屎、山柚、相思樹等。被磨的樹木中,以小樹的比例大於樣點所有樹木的小樹比例(56.9:42.8%),顯示臺灣梅花鹿偏好磨小樹。而被磨致死之植物共有17種38棵(7.3%),其中以小樹佔多數(76.3%),被磨致死的樹木只佔樣點所有樹木的0.4‰,顯示臺灣梅花鹿磨樹行為對當地林木的傷害相當微小。從被磨密度較先前增加(40:20棵/公里)來看,顯示鹿隻相對密度增加。

外文摘要: 

Because of population extinction of wild formosan Sika deer (Cervus nippon taiouanus) in 1969, Kenting National Park launched a Sika deer restoration program in 1983. In the year from 1994 to 1997, Sika deer was released to the field. Currently, homerange of the deer flock gradually encompass the She-Ting area. As the rubbing behavior of male Sika deer can cause tree damage, in order to understand the extent rubbing situations and whether the rubbing behavior causes any obvious effects on the local trees after the deer releasing to the field, a field exploration was conducted from March 2009 to January 2010. The results showed that along the surveyed transect field line, the Third District Forest Recreation Area had sixty-nine trees being rubbed and was the most severe zone. By contrast, three, one and none trees were rubbed at the Great Circle Mountain Ranch, the Yacht Rock and the five Pasture Areas of Tsai Po, respectively. Overall, a total of 518 trees (in 71 species, 35 family) were rubbed. Among them, 41 trees (in 18 species), i.e.7.9%, were repeatedly rubbed. The first ten tree species being rubbed most, in ranking order from the highest were Leucaena glauca, Aglaia formosana, Casuarina equisetifolia, Macaranga tanarius, Bridelia tomentosa Blume, Allophyllus timorensis, Bambusa dolichoclada Hayata, Melanolepis multiglandulosa, Champereia manillana and Acacia confus, respectively. In terms of tree sizes, smaller trees were rubbed more than larger trees, a percentage of 56.9% versus 42.8%, an indication that Sika deer preferred smaller trees for rubbing. Observations also showed that 38 trees (in 17 species) were rubbed to death. The death proportion was 7.3 % for which 76.3% were smaller trees. However, the dead trees were only 0.4% of the total trees surveyed, showing that the rubbing behavior caused no significant damage to the local trees. On the other hand, the density of the trees being rubbed increased (40:20 trees per km), suggesting that the population of Sika deer enlarged; a sign of successful restoration in the wild.