使用糞粒形態指標判別水鹿和梅花鹿的性別

外文標題: 
Use of fecal pellet morphometry to distinguish sex in sambar deer ( Rusa unicolor swinhoei ) and sika deer ( Cervus nippon taiouanus )
校院系所: 
屏東科技大學野生動物保育研究所
指導教授: 
裴家騏
出版年份: 
2012年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

近年來全世界不少鹿科動物數量明顯增多,且開始對生態系及經濟造成明顯的影響和干擾。因此,研究鹿科動物族群結構來評估其未來的動態變化就越顯得重要。若能使用糞粒外觀形態指標來區分鹿科動物的性別,這將會是一種相對省錢、有效率的方法。不過此方法在台灣鮮少有相關之研究,且大多僅根據研究者的自身經驗。

本研究從2010年12月到2011月11月,自畜牧場和野外水鹿 ( Rusa unicolor swinhoei ) 和梅花鹿 ( Cervus nippon taiouanus ) 的糞堆。野外未知性別的糞堆樣本,則以分子生物技術來抽取糞粒中的DNA來進行性別判斷。已知性別的成體糞堆,每堆隨機選出5顆沒受損的糞粒,秤其溼、乾重及測量和計算糞粒外觀形態資訊包括:最大長度、最大寬度、長寬比、冠長和體積。結果顯示,畜牧場 ( N=142 ) 和野外 ( N=38 ) 水鹿的糞粒,僅最大長度和冠長兩個項目雌雄間沒有顯著差異,其他除了長寬比是雌性明顯比較大外,其餘各項均是雄性明顯大於雌性;而畜牧場 ( N=44 ) 和野外 ( N=61 ) 的梅花鹿糞粒,只有最大長度、最大寬度和長寬比三個項目雌雄間具有顯著差異,其中雄性糞粒的最大寬度明顯大於雌性,而最大長度和長寬比卻明顯小於雌性。本研究結果支持前人相關研究中,雄性鹿科動物的糞粒通常比雌性圓胖的現象。這主要可能和成體鹿科動物性別間常會有體型的差異有關。

畜牧場和野外兩種鹿使用糞粒外觀形態建立的判別函數來進行性別判別正確率多有七成以上,且精簡的性別判別函數效果只略低於全項目的函數,所以未來應可直接使用精簡的判別函數來進行糞粒性別判別。若想要野外兩種鹿的性別判別正確率有八成以上,就要以單月或是季節為單位來進行樣本採集及判別函數的建立,且最好以當地採集到的糞粒樣本來建立當地要使用的判別函數比較恰當。

糞粒外觀形態指標性別鑑定法與糞粒DNA性別鑑定法進行成本比較,是個相對較便宜、快速且不需要非常新鮮樣本的研究方法。對於台灣野外的鹿科或有蹄動物的族群性別和結構的相關研究具有實用潛力和開發價值。

外文摘要: 

The populations of many species in the Cervidae family have significantly increased in recent years, which had caused significant impact and disturbance in ecological system and human economy. Therefore, by knowing the population structures of deer to evaluate the future population dynamics of them is more and more important. Pellet morphometry is a relatively inexpensive and efficient way to identify the sexes of Cervidae population. There is not much research on deer pellet morphometry in Taiwan and most of the researchers identify the sexes of deer’s pellets according to their own experience.

From December 2010 to November 2011, the pellet groups of sambar deer ( Rusa unicolor swinhoei ) and sika deer ( Cervus nippon taiouanus ) were collected from deer-farm and wild. Wild samples of unknown sexes, were determined via the the DNA extraction from pellet by using molecular techniques. Then, the study randomly selected 5 undamaged pellets from each sex-confirmed pellet groups and measured pellet morphology: wet weight, dry weight, maximum length, maximum width, crown length, maximum length/maximum width ratio and volume. The results of pellets shows that wet weight, dry weight, maximum width, and volume of captive ( N=142 ) and wild ( N=38 ) in male sambar deer were significant larger than those from female’s, except for the maximum length/maximum width ratios. And maximum width of captive ( N=44 ) and wild ( N=61 ) in male sika deer were significant larger than those from female’s, except for maximum length and maximum length/maximum width ratios. The result of this study support previous studies, that fecal pellet of adult male are usually rounder than female’s. The main cause of differences in adult deer pellets may possibly due to the size of the body.

The discriminant function analysis on fecal pellet morphometry in this study, could correctly distinguish more than 70 % of sexes in sambar deer and sika deer. The correct percentage of step-wise discriminant function is slightly lower than discriminant function that all variables included, therefore, application of step-wise discriminant function on fecal pellet morphometry is feasible. To increase the distinguishment of sexes to over 80 %, fecal samples are suggested to analyze monthly or seasonly. In order to ensure the highest correct percentage, it is suggested that fecal pellet of local population should be collected beforehand to establish the database for a particular study or management.

The advantages of pellet morphometry distinguishment is a method that relatively a lower-cost, faster-identify and most of all, do not need high-quality samples than pellets DNA molecular techniques identification. It has potential and development values for the study of ungulate, especially Cervidae population structure and sex ratios in Taiwan.