野生台灣獼猴觀光餵食之管理-郭叔叔獼猴生態區與烏山獼猴保護區之比較

外文標題: 
Management of a Feeding Program for Wild Formosa Macaque: Two Cases Comparison in Uncle Guo’s Free-Ranging Macaque Park and Wushan Macaque Reserve
校院系所: 
南華大學旅遊管理學系旅遊管理碩士班
指導教授: 
許澤宇
出版年份: 
2014年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

近年來野生動物觀光在世界各地越來越受到重視,其中以餵食野生動物為頗受歡迎之觀光模式之一,所謂的觀光餵食是指遊客於旅遊活動中有親身餵食野生動物之體驗,對多數遊客而言,可於旅遊活動中獲得刺激或滿足,部份遊客更因此投入生態保育之行列。然而,國際間已有諸多研究顯示,遊客期望藉由餵食體驗之過程能與野生動物有近距離的互動,甚至是「零距離」接觸,但是在如此的互動過程中,卻也常導致餵食活動的負面衝擊。因此本研究之目的為尋求能有效降低餵食野生動物衝擊之操作程序,目標物種則以台灣特有種-台灣獼猴為個案之探討對象。
  本研究以台中郭叔叔獼猴生態區與台南烏山獼猴保護區兩場域作比較,針對兩地遊客進行問卷調查,並以實地參與觀察法及田野調查的數據,作為分析結果的舉證。研究期間(2013 年8 月至12 月之週末)於郭叔叔獼猴生態區實得350 份有效問卷,於烏山獼猴保護區實得101 份有效問卷。研究結果顯示,兩地的環境屬性滿意度有顯著差異,其中以有諸多管理規範介入的郭叔叔獼猴生態區之滿意度較高,至於兩地的遊客愉悅感則無顯著差異。於郭叔叔獼猴生態區的遊客大多數不會因為沒有與台灣獼猴近距離接觸或是沒有親身體驗餵食活動而感到不愉悅;於烏山獼猴保護區的遊客雖然可以與獼猴近距離接觸餵食,但遊客對於活動安全性有所疑慮。從分析結果中得知,觀光餵食區之獼猴數量、獼猴行為表現、業者之保育觀念、環境擁擠度、活動安全性、解說活動、餵食之時間點、環境之動線安排以及園區之硬體設備都會影響遊客的滿意度。
  此結果有助於野生動物餵食觀光且提供永續管理意涵,換言之對業者而言,為獲得遊客滿意度,不應僅一味追求遊客與野生動物之互動,建議可將資源運用於其它可人為操作之面向(例如,導覽解說、動線安排、硬體設備等),除了可降低因遊客與野生動物之互動過程所造成的衝擊,又不致於使其滿意度下降。

外文摘要: 

In recent years, as wildlife tourism attracts more attention, feeding wildlife has become a popular tourist activity. Feeding wildlife offers tourists a unique experience in the tourism activities, and a majority of tourists feel a sense of excitement or satisfaction through feeling wildlife. Some tourists are even inspired to participate in ecological conservation projects. However, a large number of studies around the world have indicated that tourists who wish to interact with wildlife at a close or even zero distance during feeding often bring about unfavorable impacts of the feeding activity. Thus, the aim of this study is to find an operational paradigm that can effectively lower the impact of feeding wildlife. The Formosan macaque, an endemic species in Taiwan, was selected as target species, and presented as a case study.
  This study chose two sites in Taiwan for research, including Uncle Guo’s free-ranging Macaque Park in Taichung and Wushan Macaque Reserve in Tainan. A questionnaire survey was conducted on tourists in both sites, and field observations were also performed to substantiate the research findings. The survey was conducted on the weekends from August 2013 to December 2013. A total of 350 and 101 valid samples were respectively collected from Uncle Guo’s free-ranging Macaque Park and Wushan Macaque Reserve.The results indicated that the tourists expressed significantly different levels of satisfaction at the two sites’ environmental attributes. They were more satisfied with Uncle Guo’s free-ranging Macaque Park, where a number of regulations intervened in the management. However, tourists in both sites showed no significant differences in the joy they experienced. Neither having intimate interactions with macaque monkeys nor feeding the monkeys themselves. Most tourists at Uncle Guo’s free-ranging Macaque Park were not unhappy about the restriction on the interactions with macaque monkeys or feeding the monkeys. The tourists in Wushan Macaque Reserve were concerned about the safety of the feeding activity. According to the analysis results, the number of macaque monkeys at the feeding areas for tourists, behavior of macaque monkeys, park personnel’s philosophy of ecological conservation, the crowdedness of the activity setting, the safety of the activity, explanatory guides, time for feeding, the arrangement of touring routes, and hardware facilities at both sites all affected tourists’ level of satisfaction.
  These results are beneficial to wildlife feeing tourism and have significance in sustainable management. In other words, for business owners, the pursuit for tourist satisfaction is not only derived from interaction between tourists and wild animals. It is suggested that resources can be applied to other aspects that can be controlled (for instance, guidance and explanations, arrangement of movement paths, and hardware and facilities). This not only lowers the impact caused by interaction between tourists and wild animals,but also would not result in decreased satisfaction.