福山試驗林台灣獼猴(Macaca cyclopis)之活動模式及食物化學分析

外文標題: 
Activity Pattern and Food Chemical Analysis of Taiwanese Macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Fushan Experimental Forest
出版年份: 
2010年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

動物之植食及植食對動物的影響至今仍是生態學家持續研究動物食性、活動模式及覓食策略的重要考量因子。植物所含之營養素、不利於動物消化和有毒物質皆會影響到動物覓食行為及消化生理,動物必須反映於選食、覓食策略及消化生理適應上,而靈長類之社會結構也會影響該動物活動模式之時間分配。本研究從食物營養成分及次級化合物含量角度來探討台灣獼猴之覓食策略,檢視所取食食物種類及營養素是否影響猴群活動模式及每日移動距離、個體間活動模式之差異及進一步檢視植物聚合性單寧酸之化學防禦對台灣獼猴消化生理之影響。

利用掃瞄取樣針對福山試驗林大A1猴群進行行為觀察、活動路徑資料收集及其取食之植種作採集,並對圈養個體進行聚合性單寧酸餵食實驗,檢視其消化生理數值及聚合性單寧酸回收率。研究期間台灣獼猴共食用植物75種,夏季食用果實及動物性食物等高能量之食物資源,當果實缺乏時轉變為取食纖維及次級化合物含量較高之葉子及其他植物部位,當食物粗脂肪含量增加時,會增加進食並減少休息時間花費;而食物粗纖維含量增加時則會減少進食時間比例。猴群每日移動距離會隨著季節而改變,取食果實的比例與每日移動距離呈正相關,取食葉子及其他植物部位的比例則與移動距離呈負相關。雄猴較雌猴花費更多時間休息,有生殖之雌猴春、夏季之進食時間比例較未生殖母猴高。聚合性單寧酸對台灣獼猴食物攝入量具有抑制作用,且降低食物之乾基及蛋白質消化率,排遺中聚合性單寧酸回收率高達90%。

研究結果顯示台灣獼猴食物選擇以高營養、避免含較高纖維及次級化合物為原則,覓食策略則受到植物營養及次級化合物之影響,在消化生理數值反應出台灣獼猴無法有效處理聚合性單寧酸之植物化學防禦。

外文摘要: 

Studies on diet, activity budget and feeding strategy are essential for understating feeding ecology of an animal. For herbivores, herbivory set a condition for them to adapt feeding strategies to simultaneously consider obtaining nutrition from plants and avoiding their chemical defense. Animals may exhibit various dietary width, feeding pattern and or digestive physiology to encounter the varying nutrition contents and negative metabolites of plants. Animals have to consider how to adapt from food choice, feeding strategy, and digestive physiology. However, complexity of social structure in primates could also influenced time allocation of the activity budget. The objective of this study was to examine whether the feeding strategy of Taiwanese macaques was associated with the nutritional composition and contents of secondary compounds of their foods, in terms of food choice and activity budget. Physiological responses of digestive system to condensed tannin were also investigated to understand whether the macaques were physiologically constrained to ingestion of secondary metabolites of plants.

The A1 group of Taiwanese macaque at Fushan were tracked 5 to 7 days every month from January 2009 to July 2010. Scan sampling with an interval of 15 min was conducted to collect data on activity budget and diet. Date on daily traveling distance and plant sampling for chemical analysis were also conducted during the observation. Physiological responses to condensed tannin was tested with captive macaques which were fed with Quebracho powder added food for experimental purposes.

A total of 75 plant species were recorded to be consumed by the study group. In summer, the monkeys mainly fed on fruits and insects which contained high energy. In winter moreover, they spent higher percentage of time on foliages and other parts of plant body which contained high contents of fibers and secondary compounds. When they ate food items with more crude fat, they spent more time feeding and less time resting. The daily travel distance varied seasonally, and was positively correlated to time spent on fruit, but negatively correlated to feeding time for foliages and other parts of plant body. The alpha adult male spent more time on resting compared to adult females. Females who reproduced in the study period spent more time feeding than those did reproduce in spring and summer after they gave birth. The recovery rate of condensed tannin in the fecal samples was over 90%. Condensed tannin significantly affected and reduced the amount of food intake, as well as the digestibility of dry matter and protein of the study animals.

In conclusion, the Taiwanese macaque mainly consumed food items high in nutrition contents, and low in fibers and secondary metabolites. Their feeding strategy was affected by the contents of nutrition and secondary compounds of food they consumed. Their digestive physiology was compromised by the consumption of condensed tannin.