台灣獼猴(Macaca cyclopis)個性特質評估

出版年份: 
2011年
主題類別: 
關鍵字: 
摘要: 

「個性特質」係利用一系列的特質形容詞來描述個體上的差異,
靈長類的個性研究最常使用主觀評估法來評估其個性特質。此研究的
目的為評估台灣獼猴(Macaca cyclopis)的個性特質,初步建立台灣獼猴
個性特質模式,並且建立具信效度的評估工具,個性特質評估工具可
以幫助監測圈養動物的心理福利和族群管理。研究期間為2009 年10
月至2010 年10 月,研究對象為屏科大野生動物收容中心內之80 隻台
灣獼猴。每位評估員在觀察目標個體達120 分鐘後,進行個性特質量
表評分,主觀評估研究對象之個性特質。個性特質量表包含共32 個個
性特質形容詞,採七分量表記分方式進行評估。量表分數進行因素分
析後,主成份分析(principal component analysis ,PCA)的結果萃取出4個個性向度,命名為社會性、支配性、好奇性、警覺性,共包含了16項個性特質。本研究之Cronbach’s α 係數達.863,總變異解釋量為
82.04。所得台灣獼猴個性特質模式顯示台灣獼猴具有高活動性、高自
信性、高社會性、高警覺性,並且低攻擊性的特性。高位階個體比低
位階個體更具社會性、支配性、及好奇性;未成年個體比成年及老年
個體表現出更高的社會性和好奇性。低支配性和低好奇性個體會有較
高次數的自我理毛;高支配性和高社會性個體表現更高次數的相互理
毛。另外行為與個性特質之間關聯性分析結果也顯示,被評估為低社
會性、支配性、及好奇性的個體展現出較高比例的刻板行為。個性特
質評估提供了一個標準流程和圈養管理所需之基礎資料,可作為個體
心理福利監控,或併群、國際動物交換等個體選擇上等之依據,以增
進台灣圈養動物福利。

外文摘要: 

“Personality” is the word to represent the specific concept of
individual differences, by using a set of adjective traits to describe it.
Subjective assessment is the most common tool to evaluate personality in primates. The main purpose of this study was to assess personalities of
Taiwanese macaques (Macaca cyclopis), and to build a primary personality
model by establishing an assessing tool with reliability and validity for the species. The personality assessment can help with monitoring the psychology wellbeing and management of captive populations. From October 2009 to October 2010, a total of 80 Taiwanese macaques in captivity at the Pingtung Rescue Center for Endangered Wild Animals were sampled for personality assessment. Raters conducted behavioral
observation on a subject for 120 minutes and then rated the personality
questionnaire for the subject. 32 adjectives were used in the personality
questionnaire for raters to subjectively assess the personality of a subject by
7-point scale. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) of the
ratings suggested that 16 personality traits representing four personality
dimensions, Sociable, Direct, Curious and Vigilant, were used to describe
the personality of the Taiwanese macaque. Internal reliability Cronbach's
α was 0.863 and the total variance was 82.04. The personality model
indicated that Taiwanese macaques were high Active, Confident, Sociable
and Vigilant, but not aggressive. High-ranking subjects were more
sociable, direct and more curious than low-ranking ones. Juvenile showed
highly sociable, curious than adult and old-age macaques. Subjects who
exhibited more self-grooming were rated with low Direct and Curious
scores. Conversely, high Direct and Sociable scored macaques exhibited
more allo-grooming. Also, the result indicated that subjects showing
stereotypic behavior were assessed low scores in Sociable, Direct and
Curious. Personality assessment offered a standard procedure and
database necessary for captive management, such as group formation,
international animal exchange, and welfare monitoring, to promote
wellbeing of captive animals in Taiwan.